Urology is a surgical speciality which deals with diseases of the urinary/reproductive tracts in men and with urinary disease in women. The urinary tract includes kidney, ureter, bladder and prostate in men.
The various diseases of the urinary tract that are treated by a urologist:
Stone in urinary tract
- Being located in the geographic stone belt of the world, large population in North India is suffering from urinary stone disease. Stones are usually formed in kidneys but may migrate in ureter or bladder and cause symptoms like pain, blood in urine or burning during urination.
- For Kidney stone PCNL (Per Cutaneous Nephro Lithotripsy) is a minimally invasive urological procedure where through a small key hole Puncture in the Lumber region the kidney is approached and a telescope of pen size is inserted into the kidney and the stone is broken under direct vision using Holmium Laser. These broken stone fragments are then removed through the same passage. Now a days PCNL in the form of 5mm, miniperc is also being done.
- For the stones in ureter or bladder, the telescope is inserted through urethra (URS / FLEXIBLE URS) and stones are broken with Holmium Laser and then removed.
- Small stones upto 1.5cm in the kidney now can be removed without any puncture by RIRS (Retrograde Intrarenal Surgery)
Enlargement of Prostate gland (BPH)
- Almost 60% of men at the age of 60 years and almost all the men at the age of 90 years would have some degree of prostatic enlargement. However, only about two thirds of these, would have any symptoms pertaining to enlarged prostate. These symptoms comprise of increased frequency of urination, hesitancy in passing urine, sense of incomplete evacuation of urine, poor urinary flow, as well as retention of urine.
- 10 to 20% of symtomatic BPH patients who do not get relief with medicine need surgical removal of prostate. For the last half a century, Trans Urethral Resection of Prostate, popularly known as TURP is minimally invasive surgical method for the treatment of the enlarged prostate gland. Since last decade, Laser Prostatectomy is a novel innovation and is rapidly replacing TURP operations at most advanced urological centres worldwide. Laser prostatectomy using 100 watts Holmium Laser is called HOLEP (Holmium Laser Enucleation of Prostate). Laser treatment of prostate cancer has several advantages over TURP in the form of less blood loss, shorter hospital stay.
- The procedure is almost blood less when compared to the TURP; hence there is no need for blood transfusion even during treatment of very large prostate glands.
- The post-operative duration of indwelling catheter is much less than that required for conventional TURP and hence the patient may be sent home much earlier.
- Early discharge from hospital further facilitates quicker recovery and earlier resumption of usual productive work.
Infections of the urinary tract
- Urinary tract infections are very common especially in women and Diabetes. If this is not adequately treated, can become chronic, and then it is very disturbing for the patient as this severely hamper their quality of life. Detailed investigation and treatment of these patients can give them back to the normal healthy life that they deserve.
- Neglected cases of urinary tract infections could lead to sepsis or permanent damage to kidneys causing ‘kidney failure’ (Renal failure).
- Prostatic infection in men can also become chronic if not adequately treated and then require prolonged specialized treatment and care